Courses Designed to
Meet General Education Requirements
Health, and AIDS
Professor Susan Craddock and Dr. Sally
The University of Arizona
HIV/AIDS has been a recognized phenomenon
now for almost twenty years. Its impact
continues to be widespread and profound,
raising a number of important questions
at various levels of analysis. Has sex
changed in the 90s? Have concerns about
health and personal safety shifted for
college students today? How has AIDS
impacted the way we see ourselves and
others? How has it changed our vision
of other countries? This course will
offer explorations of HIV and AIDS from
a variety of perspectives, including
its biology and pathology, its impact
on communication and sexual practices
among college students, the social and
economic causes of HIV/AIDS in the United
States and elsewhere in the world, and
the politics of medical research and
health care funding.
Other than disseminating information,
the purpose of the course is to challenge
commonly held perceptions about the
origins, causes, and social constructions
of AIDS; to examine the reasons why
people might not change behaviors that
put them at a health risk; and to tackle
the difficulties of policy formation
and community action. As such, the class
offers a forum for developing critical
thinking and problem solving skills
through the reading material, class
discussions, numerous short writing
assignments, workshops, and role-playing
Course structure: The course is designed
with a Monday and Wednesday lecture
and a Friday workshop. Lectures will
actually be constituted largely by class
discussion of reading materials and
writing assignments, and the workshops
will offer a variety of exercises geared
toward group problem solving, critical
analysis, and the discussion of issues
extending from those addressed in the
Monday and Wednesday reading materials.
Attendance: This course is set up to
elicit as much student participation
as possible. The degree to which it
works depends on how much you work.
Attendance is obviously a key element
of being able to participate actively,
and is required. More than three unexplained
absences will result in a ten percent
reduction of your grade.
15% x 2 = 30%
5% x 5 = 25%
All Students: Three of the five writing
assignments and the first midterm occur
in the first half of the course. These
will allow you to have a good assessment
of your progress in the course before
the drop deadline.
The midterms and final exam will consist
primarily of short answer questions
and one to two longer essay questions
requiring synthesis of reading materials
and your own critical analysis of the
topics under review.
All writing assignments, including
midterms and finals, will be graded
according to the degree to which you
have been able to synthesize and incorporate
assigned reading materials (where appropriate),
to present these in a thoughtful and
cohesive manner, and to articulate your
own critical assessments of the topics
at hand. Thus not only content but writing
style and cohesiveness will be assessed.
Honors Students: Two writing assignments
will be required of you that ask you
to assess to a greater degree the debates
characterizing particular areas of the
HIV/AIDS arena. These assignments will
come in place of two of the regular
writing assignments. They will constitute
two five-page papers in which you will
write reactions to two of the key issues
discussed in class; these issues will
be of your choosing in consultation
with the professor(s). These papers
will involve reading at least two extra
articles on the subject you choose,
and writing a cohesive essay summarizing
the arguments contained in the reading
and your own well-thought out reaction
to these arguments. Discussing your
ideas and research progress with the
professors is encouraged.
Jan 13, Wed.
1. Overview of course
Readings: R. Keeling, M.D.,
"HIV and Higher education: From isolation
to engagement," in Liberal Education;
AAC&U Special Reprint on Higher Education
and Health, 1996;
K. Douglas et al "Results from the
1995 national college health risk behavior
survey," in Journal of American College
Jan 15, Fri.
1. Questionnaire: Knowledge, Behavior,
2. Personal Ranking: How do you rank
HIV among other health and life issues?
Jan 18, Mon: No Class - Martin
Luther King Holiday
II. History of the Epidemic
Jan 20, Wed
1. Global overview (with maps, statistics,
graphs), and demographics of HIV/AIDS
in U.S. (who has AIDS, how are statistics
Readings: Bondaart, "Overview
of the AIDS Epidemic"
Writing Assignment: How has
the HIV epidemic affected you or someone
you know: how has it changed your behavior,
if any; how has it changed the way you
see others? Due Monday.
Jan 22, Fri
1. Take a stance on the following issue(s):
All homosexuals should be tested for
HIV. AIDS originated in Africa. Discussion
Jan 25, Mon
1. Origins theories
Readings: Rosalind Harrison-Chirumuuta
and Richard Chirumuuta, "AIDS from Africa:
A case of racism vs. science?" in G.
Bond, J. Kreniske, I. Susser, and J.
Vincent, AIDS in Africa and the Caribbean,
J. Phillipe Rushton, "Population Differences
in Susceptibility to AIDS: An Evolutionary
Analysis," Social Science and Medicine
Jan 27, Wed
1. Origins, cont'd: the politics of
origins--theories in the U.S. and globally.
Readings: Randall Packard and
Paul Epstein, "Medical research on AIDS
in Africa: a Historical perspective,"
in E. Fee and D. Fox, eds., AIDS: The
Making of a Chronic Disease., University
of California 1992:346-376.
Writing Assignment: Go to the
red notebook containing listserv summaries
of articles on HIV and AIDS. Choose
one entry, go to the library and find
the article, read it and write a summary
and opinion. Due Wednesday.
Jan 29, Fri
1. Film: History of AIDS epidemic
III. Biological Aspects
Feb 1, Mon
1. Definition of the virus and its pathology.
Feb 3, Wed (Sally Stevens)
1. Biological aspects of HIV/AIDS, cont'd.
Transmission of HIV: a) blood-to-blood;
b) sexual transmission; c) mother to
Readings: Sally Stevens, "The
Sexual transmission of HIV;" (unpublished
Stephen Koester, "The process of drug
injection," in T. Rhodes and R. Hartnoll,
eds., AIDS, Drugs and Prevention:
Perspectives on Individual and Community
Action, Routledge 1996.
Feb 5, Fri
1. Slide show: Sexually transmitted
IV. Communication (Guest
speaker: Lee Ann Hamilton, Student Health)
Feb 8, Mon
1. Communication at the personal level;
communicating about sex.
Readings: Hortensia Amaro, "Love,
sex, and power: considering women's
realities in HIV prevention," in American
Psychologist, June 1995:437-447.
Feb 10, Wed
1. The norms of communication on campus
- alcohol, drugs, and sex.
Reading: Deborah Cohen and Linda
Lederman, "Navigating the freedoms of
college life: Students talk about alcohol,
gender, and sex," in N. Roth and L.
Fuller, eds., Women and AIDS,
The Harrington Park Press 1998:101-127.
Feb 12, Fri
1. Role playing (Lee Ann)
2. Film: No Such Love
Feb 15, Mon
1. Safe Sex (Lee Ann, guest lecturer)
Feb 17, Wed
1. AIDS in the media: what does reporting
cover? what does it miss? how does it
frame the issues surrounding HIV and
Readings: Stephen Klaidman,
"How well the media report health risk"
T. Cook and D. Colby, "The mass-mediated
epidemic: the politics of AIDS on the
nightly network news," Fee and Fox,
AIDS: The Making of a Chronic Disease,
University of California 1992:84-122.
Writing assignment: Come in
to class on Friday with a newspaper
or other media depiction of HIV, AIDS,
or related issues. Write two to three
pages on, and be prepared to discuss
the following: its interpretive framework,
the questions its asks, the questions
it does not ask, its influence in your
opinion on public thinking about sex,
HIV, homosexuality, ethnicity, etc.
Feb 19, Fri
1. Discussion of newspaper articles.
Feb 22, Mon
1. Sexuality, deviancy, and the politics
of AIDS representation
Readings: Meyrick Horton with
Peter Aggleton, "Perverts, inverts,
and experts: The cultural production
of an AIDS paradigm," in AIDS: Social
Representations, Social Practices :
Feb 24, Wed
1. Official depictions of AIDS: Public
Readings: Sander Gilman, Picturing
Health and Illness, Chapter 6, "The
beautiful body and AIDS", Johns Hopkins
University Press 1995:115-172.
Slide show on public health posters
produced by U.S. and other countries
Feb 26, Fri
1. Get into teams, begin thinking about
March 1, Mon
1. Midterm #1
March 3, Wed
1. Discussion of midterms.
March 5, Fri
1. Bring in posters, share and discuss
V. Social and Political Contexts
March 8, Mon
1. Political economy of AIDS in the
U.S., I: poverty, the inner city
Readings: Merrill Singer, "AIDS
and the health crisis of the U.S. urban
poor," in Social Science and Medicine.39,7,
March 10, Wed
1. Political economy of AIDS in the
U.S., II: social inequity and the economy
Readings: M. Clatts, "Poverty,
drug use, and AIDS: Converging issues
in the life stories of women in Harlem,"
in Wings of Gauze: Women of Color
and the Experience of Health and Illness,
Wayne State University Press 1993:312-339;
Evelynn Hammonds, "Seeing AIDS: Race,
gender, and representation," in N. Goldstin
and J. Manlowe, The Gender Politics
of HIV/AIDS in Women, NYU Press
M. Raffaelli and M. Suarez-Al-Adam,
"Reconsidering the HIV/AIDS prevention
needs of Latino women in the United
States," in N. Roth and L. Fuller, eds.,
Women and AIDS, The Harrington
Park Press 1998:7-42
March 12, Fri
1. Group project: After being assigned
a role (real estate financier, public
health official, church leader, homeless
advocate), get into groups and come
up with a community AIDS prevention
and treatment program aimed at poor
inner city communities.
March 15-19: Spring Recess
March 22, Mon
1. Political economy of AIDS in the
U.S., III: women and the new demographics
Readings: USAID Office for Women
in Development, "Report in Brief: New
directions in HIV/AIDS Prevention: A
report on the women and AIDS research
program final conference."
N. Goldstein and Manlowe, "Introduction,"
from Goldstein and Manlowe, Eds., The
Gender Politics of HIV/AIDS in Women,
NYU Press 1997:1-11.
Bill Rodriguez, "Biomedical models
of HIV and women," in Goldstein and
Manlowe, Eds., The Gender Politics
of HIV/AIDS in Women, NYU Press
"Women, HIV and AIDS: Some facts and
figures," from http://www.avert.org/womenaid.htm
"United States HIV/AIDS Statistics,"
U.S. Public Health Service Statistics,
March 24, Wed
1. How has AIDS impacted the way we
see each other?: constructions of disease,
constructions of vulnerability
Readings: P. Treichler, "Beyond
Cosmo: AIDS, identity, and inscriptions
of gender," in Camera Obscura: A
Journal of Feminism and Film Theory,
Writing Assignment: Find a story
in a newspaper that covers AIDS in the
U.S., AIDS in American cities, women
and AIDS, etc. and critique the article
using some of the tools learned the
past few weeks. Due Wednesday.
March 26, Fri
1. Speaker panel: drug addicts tell
March 29, Mon
1. Global overview of AIDS, I: Outmigration
in Southeast Africa and its impact on
Reading: Wiseman Chijere Chirwa,
"Aliens and AIDS in southern Afirca:
The Malawi-South Africa debate," in
African Affairs 97, 1998:53-79.
March 31, Wed
1. Global overview, II: Thailand
Guest Speaker: Wayne Weible
Readings: Maria Wawer, Chai
Pokhisita, Uraiwan Kanungsukkasem, Anthony
Pramualratana and Regina McNamara, "Origins
and working conditions of female sex
workers in urban Thailand: Consequences
of social context for HIV transmission,"
Social Science and medicine 42,3,
Writing assignments due.
April 2, Fri
1. Get into groups and discuss possibilities
for U.S. intervention into the AIDS
epidemic internationally. Discuss options
at both the federal level and at a bilateral,
non-government level. What might a viable
grass roots, NGO program look like for
Thailand or East Africa? Should the
U.S. incorporate AIDS assistance into
international aid funding?
April 5, Mon
1. Global overview, III: India, South
Reading: Sheena Asthana and
Robert Oostvogels, "Community participation
in HIV prevention: Proglems and prospects
for community-based strategies among
female sex workers in Madras," Social
Science and Medicine 43,2, 1996:133-148.
Hilary Surratt and James Inciardi,
"Drug use and risks for HIV/AIDS among
indigent women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,"
from Sally Stevens and Harry Wexler,
Eds., Women and Substance Abuse:
Gender Transparency, Haworth Press
April 7, Wed
1. Share/discuss the outcomes of Friday's
April 9, Fri
1. Midterm #2
IV. Legal, Ethical, Policy
April 12, Mon
1. Discuss Midterms #2.
Overview of legal, ethical, and policy
issues that impact HIV risk behavior.
Reading: Sally Stevens and John
Bogart, "Reducing HIV risk behavior
of drug involved women: Medical, social,
economic, and legal constraints."
April 14, Wed
1. Clinical trials for HIV - exclusionary
and inclusionary criteria.
Reading: Sally Stevens, "The
history and development of the AIDS/HIV
crisis in the United States: Medical
treatments, clinical trials and inclusionary
criteria," unpublished paper.
April 16, Fri
1. Guest speaker: John Bogart, "Reducing
April 19, Mon
1. Individual freedom versus public
Readings: AIDS Policy and
the Law, Sept 20 1996 issue.
Writing Assignment: Write a
reaction to the statement that all HIV-positive
cases should be reported by name to
a State Health Department. What sort
of legal and ethical doors does this
or could this open? Due Wednesday.
April 21, Wed
1. Discuss your writing assignments.
April 23, Fri
1. Revisiting the questionnaire of the
first day: How does behavior change?
April 26, Mon
1. HIV testing: blood tests, home kits,
Roche. What are their advantages? What
are their problems from an individual
or public health perspective?
Readings: Cindy Patton, Inventing
AIDS, Routledge Press 1990, Chapter
2, "Media, testing, and safe sex education:
controlling the landscape of AIDS information,"
April 28, Wed
1. HIV testing, cont'd: Confidential
vs. anonymous testing; mandatory testing
and mandatory reporting; Contact tracing;
Duty to warn.
Reading: B. Gerbert et al, "HIV-infected
health care professionals: Public opinion
about testing, disclosing, and switching,"
in Archives of Internal Medicine.
Center for Women Policy Studies, "Mandatory
HIV testing of pregnant women - a threat
to the reproductive rights of all women,"
Anna Forbes, "Names will never hurt
you?" POZ, February 1998 (4).
April 30, Fri
1. PCHD/CDI speaker
May 3, Mon
1. Treatments, health care issues: How
optimistic should we be with the new
cocktails'? How should they be funded?
Does this lead to new risk taking? What
about the development of drug-resistant
strains of HIV?
Reading: Chandler Burr, "Of
AIDS and altruism," U.S. News and
World Report April 6, 1998:60-61;
B. Lindsey, "Peer education: a viewpoint
and critique, Journal of American
College Health.45, 1997:187-189.
May 5, Wed
1. Wrap up and review for final.